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The skin consists of two primary layers: Vitamin D is produced in the keratinocytes [] of two innermost strata, the stratum basale and stratum spinosum.

Vitamin D can be synthesized only by a photochemical process. Phytoplankton in the ocean such as coccolithophore and Emiliania huxleyi have been photosynthesizing vitamin D for more than million years.

Primitive vertebrates in the ocean could absorb calcium from the ocean into their skeletons and eat plankton rich in vitamin D.

Land vertebrates required another source of vitamin D other than plants for their calcified skeletons. They had to either ingest it or be exposed to sunlight to photosynthesize it in their skin.

In birds and fur-bearing mammals, fur or feathers block UV rays from reaching the skin. Instead, vitamin D is created from oily secretions of the skin deposited onto the feathers or fur, and is obtained orally during grooming.

Vitamin D 3 cholecalciferol is produced industrially by exposing 7-dehydrocholesterol to UVB light, followed by purification.

Vitamin D 2 ergocalciferol is produced in a similar way using ergosterol from yeast or mushrooms as a starting material.

Vitamin D is carried in the bloodstream to the liver, where it is converted into the prohormone calcifediol.

Circulating calcifediol may then be converted into calcitriol , the biologically active form of vitamin D, in the kidneys.

Whether it is made in the skin or ingested, Vitamin D is hydroxylated in the liver at position 25 upper right of the molecule to form hydroxycholecalciferol calcifediol or 25 OH D.

The conversion of calcifediol to calcitriol is catalyzed by the enzyme hydroxyvitamin D 3 1-alpha-hydroxylase , which is the product of the CYP27B1 human gene.

The activity of CYP27B1 is increased by parathyroid hormone , and also by low calcium or phosphate. Following the final converting step in the kidney, calcitriol is released into the circulation.

By binding to vitamin D-binding protein, calcitriol is transported throughout the body, including to the classical target organs of intestine, kidney and bone.

In addition to the kidneys, calcitriol is also synthesized by certain other cells including monocyte - macrophages in the immune system.

When synthesized by monocyte-macrophages, calcitriol acts locally as a cytokine , modulating body defenses against microbial invaders by stimulating the innate immune system.

The activity of calcifediol and calcitriol can be reduced by hydroxylation at position 24 by vitamin D3 hydroxylase , forming secalciferol and calcitetrol respecively.

American researchers Elmer McCollum and Marguerite Davis in [9] discovered a substance in cod liver oil which later was called "vitamin A".

British doctor Edward Mellanby noticed dogs that were fed cod liver oil did not develop rickets and concluded vitamin A, or a closely associated factor, could prevent the disease.

In , Elmer McCollum tested modified cod liver oil in which the vitamin A had been destroyed. He called it vitamin D because it was the fourth vitamin to be named.

In , [9] it was established that when 7-dehydrocholesterol is irradiated with light, a form of a fat-soluble vitamin is produced now known as D 3.

Alfred Fabian Hess stated: A meeting took place with J. Bernal , and Dorothy Crowfoot to discuss possible structures, which contributed to bringing a team together.

X-ray crystallography demonstrated the sterol molecules were flat, not as proposed by the German team led by Windaus. In , Otto Rosenheim and Harold King published a paper putting forward structures for sterols and bile acids which found immediate acceptance.

In the s, Windaus clarified further the chemical structure of vitamin D. In , American biochemist Harry Steenbock at the University of Wisconsin demonstrated that irradiation by ultraviolet light increased the vitamin D content of foods and other organic materials.

A vitamin D deficiency is a known cause of rickets. His irradiation technique was used for foodstuffs, most memorably for milk.

By the expiration of his patent in , rickets had been all but eliminated in the US. In , after studying nuclear fragments of intestinal cells, a specific binding protein for Vitamin D called the Vitamin D Receptor was identified by Mark Haussler and Tony Norman.

In the liver, vitamin D was found to be converted to calcifediol. Calcifediol is then converted by the kidneys to calcitriol, the biologically active form of vitamin D.

The vitamin D metabolites, calcifediol and calcitriol, were identified by competing teams led by Michael F. There is considerable research activity looking at effects of vitamin D and its metabolites in animal models, cell systems, gene expression studies, epidemiology and clinical therapeutics.

These different types of studies can produce conflicting evidence as to the benefits of interventions with vitamin D.

They suggest, for some people, reducing the risk of preventable disease requires a higher level of vitamin D than that recommended by the IOM.

Until such trials are conducted, the implications of the available evidence for public health and patient care will be debated".

Some preliminary studies link low vitamin D levels with disease later in life. Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in the European population.

Apart from VDR activation, various alternative mechanisms of action are under study, such as inhibition of signal transduction by hedgehog , a hormone involved in morphogenesis.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Vitamin D disambiguation. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. The Journal of Nutrition.

Retrieved 6 June American Association for Clinical Chemistry. Retrieved June 23, A metabolite of vitamin D active in intestine".

Vitamin D and cardiometabolic outcomes". Annals of Internal Medicine. University of California, Riverside.

Retrieved January 24, Molecular vitamin D mediated mechanisms". Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology.

Retrieved July 9, The New England Journal of Medicine. The British Journal of Nutrition. Nutrition Through the Life Cycle. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 4: Calcified Tissue International Review.

Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics.

Archived from the original on June 8, Retrieved August 24, The Nutrition Desk Reference. Melanie 1 February A systematic review and meta-analysis".

Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Preventive Services Task Force".

A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". American Journal of Epidemiology Review. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Vitamin D and innate and adaptive immunity.

Journal of Clinical Virology. Topics in Antiviral Medicine. International Journal of Epidemiology. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences.

Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences. The evidence for vitamin D as a treatment for MS is inconclusive. The available evidence substantiates neither clinically significant benefit nor harm from vitamin D in the treatment of patients with MS.

Multiple Sclerosis Journal Systematic Review. Several preliminary studies have reported results which have shown some promise, but none has yet provided significant evidence of a clinically meaningful improvement.

Role, Current Uses and Future Perspectives". International Journal of Molecular Sciences. Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on improving glucose homeostasis and preventing diabetes: World Journal of Diabetes Review.

Updated meta-analysis on maternal outcomes". A Food Labeling Guide Health Claims Food Labeling". Health Claim Regarding Calcium and Osteoporosis".

Archived from the original PDF on March 6, Retrieved January 29, Australian Ministry of Health. Archived from the original on February 27, Updated Dietary Reference Intakes".

Nutrition and Healthy Eating. Retrieved April 28, National Health and Medical Research Council. Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels.

FR page " PDF. Retrieved July 21, Retrieved 21 July Vitamin D and postmenopausal health". Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology.

B, Biology Submitted manuscript. Retrieved 16 April Retrieved 12 June An overview of vitamin D status and intake in Europe". Department of Health and Human Services July 15, Food and Drug Administration.

Retrieved February 22, Are they one and the same? Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. Optimal serum hydroxyvitamin D levels for multiple health outcomes.

Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology Review. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes. The preparative value of a photo-sensitiser".

Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications Claiborne Ray May 17, The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 21, Retrieved March 8, Archived from the original on May 30, Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity.

Journal of General Internal Medicine. Use of calcitriol 1,dihydroxyvitamin D3 for treatment of psoriasis". Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

University of Hawaii Press. Illustrated Introduction to Latin Epigraphy. University of California Press. Retrieved 3 October History Spread Romanization Roman numerals.

Letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Letter D with diacritics. Retrieved from " https: Graphemes ISO basic Latin letters. Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages Articles needing additional references from December All articles needing additional references.

Views Read View source View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. This page was last edited on 18 December , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

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Axel Prahl singt "Heut fang ich an". Stellbrinks letzter Fall mehr mehr. Die gebürtige Argentinierin ist eine der bekanntesten Cellistinnen der Welt und präsentiert ihr Können morgen in der Elbphilharmonie. Die Zahl der angemeldeten Fernsehteilnehmer stieg von 3. Sohn Frederik sagen sie es gleich, bei Tochter Franziska wollen sie noch die anstehende Hochzeit abwarten. Januar startete die Spätnachrichtensendung Tagesthemen. Inafter studying nuclear fragments of intestinal cells, a specific binding protein for Vitamin D called the Vitamin D Receptor was identified by Mark Haussler and Tony Norman. Retrieved 16 April This article is about the letter of the alphabet. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. If hypercalcemia is not treated, it results in excess deposits of calcium in soft tissues and organs such as the kidneys, liver, and heart, resulting in pain phantom.der oper organ damage. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. A Food Labeling Guide The European Food Safety Authority EFSA in [] reviewed the current evidence, finding the relationship between serum 25 OH D concentration and musculoskeletal health outcomes is widely variable. Grand casino biloxi new years eve activation in the intestine, bone, kidney, and fm2019 gland cells leads kik angebot der woche the maintenance of calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood with the assistance of parathyroid hormone and calcitonin and to the maintenance of bone content. Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages Trusted online casino games needing additional references from December All articles needing additional references. Retrieved July 9, Retrieved August 24, An overview of vitamin D status and intake in Europe". For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help: Retrieved July 21,

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